There are a number of words that use one-letter suffixes to create new meanings. Invariably, most of these came from Sanskrit.
പം means 'That which drinks'. Thus we have ദ്വിപം 'that which drinks twice' or an elephant. (Of course, it first 'drinks' into its trunk and then drinks into its mouth :-) Similarly we have പാദപം 'that which drinks with its feet' or a tree.
ജം is another common suffix. It means 'that which is born from'. For example, ജലജം 'that which is born of water' or a lotus.
ദം means 'that which gives'. Hence ജലദം 'that which gives water' or a cloud.
ഗം means 'that which goes or that which goes through or by'. For example, ഖഗം 'that which goes through the sky (ഖ)' or a bird. ഉരഗം 'that which goes using its body' or a snake.
There are also some other lesser known one-letter suffixes even though they are part of some common words. An example is ത്രം which means, 'that which protects from'. We see it in the common word പുത്രന് meaning 'one who protects from പു (one of the hells)'. (I think the idea was that having a son born is so lucky it will protect you from the hell പു ). Or ആതപത്രം 'that which protects from sunshine' or an umbrella.
ധി means 'a collection of'. As in, വാരിധി 'a collection of water' or ocean.
Of course, we can combine them produce new words. For example:
അബ്ധിജം = അപ് + ധി + ജം = that which is born from a collection of water (അപ് ) = that which is born from sea = lotus